Karate moves have been developed based on kata (forms).
There are twenty forms established by Shoto-kan, which are five kata of Heian, three kata of Tekki, Bassai, Kanku, Hangetsu, Enpi, Jutte, Jion, Gankaku, three kata of Taikyoku, which were developed by Gigo Funakoshi, Ten-no-kata (kumite), and Kon-no-kata Matsukaze.
Taikyoku shodan-no-kata, which consist of gedan-barai and oizuki, are for very beginners. Beginners should then practice kata of heian and tekki.
Through practicing kata, trainees learn the three elements of karate practice, which are light and heavy application of strength, expansion and contraction of the body, and fast and slow movements. The trainees also lean rhythm, timing, distance, breathing, and the flow of vital energy, which are the essences common to all martial arts.
For all kata, demonstration takes approximately one minute.
Twenty forms established by Shoto-kan
- Taikyoku Shodan, Nidan, Sandan
- Heian Shodan, Nidan, Sandan, Yondan, Godan
- Tekki Shodan, Nidan, Sandan
- Ten-no-kata (Kumite, Omote, Ura)